yes this is what i am searching too over internet for a long and finally found what happen over internet ;)
so just wana share with u all
Best answer i found is here
How do I figure out the Internet's infrastructure?Let's suppose we don't know about the history of the Internet, nor do we have access to any online resources that explain us this.
Then, the only way to learn how the Internet infastructure is built is to go back to the roots. Using existing protocols to discover how our Internet is built.
Specifically, the Internet Control Message Protocol or ICMP defines the Echo request and the Echo reply. By increasing the Time To Live of IP packets by 1 each iteration, you can find each next
hop on the path to your target. This allows you to get a list of hops between you and your target, the classic traceroute.
On Windows, you can use
So, let's do a traceroute from Belgium to the United States; Stack Exchange looks like a good target.
Interesting, we now know that Belgium, London and New York are all connected to Level3.
Level3 can be seen as an ISP to ISPs, they simply interconnect multiple ISPs.
Here is a picture of how it's connected:
Let's go the opposite direction, China! The first thing I could find is the search engine Baidu.
Well, not much information about the Chinese ISPs there but we at least found Tinet. Here is a nice picture of their site that shows how they connect with the various ISPs:
They simply have a cloud of hops spread about the relevant part of the world they serve, and at the end points they connect to the ISPs. The reason they have a cloud of hops is for reliability, for when some hops fall out...
If you repeat this a few times, you can get an idea of how everything is connected.
So, what Network Tiers are there?The huge networks we found through trace-routing are known as Tier 1 networks.
Although there is no authority that defines tiers of networks participating in the Internet, the most common definition of a tier 1 network is one that can reach every other network on the Internet without purchasing IP transit or paying settlements.If you click through to Tier 1 networks from the Internet Backbone page you get to a list of the current Tier 1 networks:
It is not known if
Wait, what... What is Peering?These networks connect to each other through a process known as 'peering'. Most traffic needs to go over at least 2 different top tier networks in order to reach its destination, and the networks are bridged with peering arrangements.
The way this usually works is that each party to the agreement will commit to routing x amount of traffic for the other party on their network, and vice-verse. There is usually no money exchanged in these arrangements, unless one side is sending or receiving a lot more data than the other sides.
Large companies can also go out and arrange their own peering relationships. For example Netflix has arranged its own peering and network infrastructure directly with multiple tier-1 networks so that its traffic is both cheaper and closer to end users on each of the popular US broadband ISP's.
See this Wikipedia page on Peering.
There's a lot more to read at those pages; this answer gives a general idea, discovering all the details are left as an exercise to the reader. You can ask questions about this subject in the comments below...
i found this mind blowing answer from [www.superuser.com] and user was Tom Wijsman thankx man :) really enjoy reading this